Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Seminar report on "Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)"

    As a result of broadband service providers moving from offering Connectivity to services, the discussion surrounding broadband entertainment has increased significantly. The Broadband Services Forum BSF) membership has identified a number of services that require significant focus in this decade; one of these is Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). This paper provides a high level, vendor&agnostic overview of what IPTV is and how it works.

IPTV, essentially, has two components:

Part 1: Internet Protocol (IP): specifies the format of packets and the addressing scheme. Most
networks combine IP with a higher&level protocol. Depending on the vendor solution, user
datagram protocol (UDP) is the most typical higher level protocol. The protocol establishes a
virtual connection between a destination and a source. IP allows you to address a package of
information and drop it in the system, but there’s no direct link between you and the recipient.

Part 2: Television (TV): specifies the medium of communication that operates through the
transmission of pictures and sounds. We all know TV, but here we are referring to the services
that are offered for the TV, like linear and on demand programming. Add the two components
together (IP+TV) and you have: IPTV: specifies the medium of communication of pictures and
sound that operates over an IP Network. Note: It is important to point out that IPTV services
usually operate over a private IP network and not the public Internet. In a private IP network
specifically designed for IPTV, a service provider can ensure quality of service (QoS) for
consumers. QoS refers to giving certain IP traffic a higher priority than other IP traffic. In an
IPTV network, TV signals are given the highest priority. As a result, the TV service is
instantaneous; there is no downloading involved for the linear or on&demand content. An IPTV service model offers a complete broadcaster and “cable programmer” channel line&up, including live programming delivered in real time. Additionally, it can offer a video on demand (VOD) service and enables the broadband service provider to develop new and unique services to differentiate their offering from competitors

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Seminar report on "4G Wireless Technology"

                          As the virtual centre of excellence in mobile and personal communications (Mobile VCE) moves into its second core research programme it has been decided to set up a fourth generation (4G) visions group aimed at harmonising the research work across the work areas and amongst the numerous researchers working on the programme. This paper outlines the initial work of the group and provides a start to what will become an evolving vision of 4G. A short history of previous generations of mobile communications systems and a discussion of the limitations of third generation (3G) systems are followed by a vision of 4G for 2010 based on five elements: fully converged services, ubiquitous mobile access, diverse user devices, autonomous networks and software dependency. This vision is developed in more detail from a technology viewpoint into the key areas of networks and services, software systems and wireless access.

The major driver to change in the mobile area in the last ten years has been the massive enabling implications of digital technology, both in digital signal processing and in service provision. The equivalent driver now, and in the next five years, will be the all pervasiveness of software in both networks and terminals. The digital revolution is well underway and we stand at the doorway to the software revolution. Accompanying these changes are societal developments involving the extensions in the use of mobiles. Starting out from speech-dominated services we are now experiencing massive growth in applications involving SMS (Short Message Service) together with the start of Internet applications using WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-mode. The mobile phone has not only followed the watch, the calculator and the organiser as an essential personal accessory but has subsumed all of them. With the new Internet extensions it will also lead to a convergence of the PC, hi-fl and television and provide mobility to facilities previously only available on one network.

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Seminar report on "3G to 4G"

                          Wireless phone standards have a life of their own. You can tell, because they're
spoken of reverently in terms of generations. There's great-granddad who's pioneering story pre-dates cellular, grandma and grandpa analog cellular, mom and dad digital cellular, 3G wireless just starting to make a place for itself in the world, and the new baby on the way, 4G. Most families have a rich history of great accomplishments, famous ancestors, skeletons in the closets and wacky in-laws. The wireless scrapbook is just as dynamic. There is success, infighting and lots of hope for the future. Here's a brief snapshot of the colorful world of wireless. First of all, this family is the wireless telephone family. It is just starting to compete with the wireless Internet family that includes Wi-Fi and the other 802 wireless IEEE standards. But it is a completely different set of standards. The only place the two are likely to merge is in a marriage of phones that support both the cellular and Wi-Fi standards. Wireless telephone started with what you might call 0G if you can remember back that far. The great ancestor is the mobile telephone service that became available just after World War II. In those pre-cell days, you had a mobile operator to set up the calls and there were only a handful of channels available.

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Seminar report on "Design Technique for Voice Browsers"

 Browser technology is changing very fast these days and we are moving from the visual paradigm to the voice paradigm. Voice browser is the technology to enter this paradigm. A voice browser is a “device which interprets a (voice) markup language and is capable of generating voice output and/or interpreting voice input, and possibly other input/output modalities. "This paper describes the requirements for two forms of character-set grammar, as a matter of preference or implementation, one is more easily read by (most) humans, while the other is geared toward machine generation.

A voice browser is a “device which interprets a (voice) markup language and is capable of generating voice output and/or interpreting voice input, and possibly other input/output modalities." The definition of a voice browser, above, is a broad one. The fact that the system deals with speech is obvious given the first word of the name, but what makes a software system that interacts with the user via speech a "browser"? The information that the system uses (for either domain data or dialog flow) is dynamic and comes somewhere from the Internet. From an end-user's perspective, the impetus is to provide a service similar to what graphical browsers of HTML and related technologies do today, but on devices that are not equipped with full-browsers or even the screens to support them. This situation is only exacerbated by the fact that much of today's content depends on the ability to run scripting languages and 3rd-party plug-ins to work correctly.

Much of the efforts concentrate on using the telephone as the first voice browsing device. This is not to say that it is the preferred embodiment for a voice browser, only that the number of access devices is huge, and because it is at the opposite end of the graphical-browser continuum, which high lights the requirements that make a speech interface viable. By the first meeting it was clear that this scope-limiting was also needed in order to make progress, given that there are significant challenges in designing a system that uses or integrates with existing content, or that automatically scales to the features of various access devices. 

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